Japonca Öğreniyoruz
       
     
 

KİM KORKAR JAPONCADAN ! ! !

 

Japonca üç farklı tipteki yazının kombinasyonu ile yazılır:

 

KANJI (漢字 / かんじ) ile adlanan Çince karakterler

ve

 Çince karakterlerden uyarlanan iki hece yazısı :

 

HIRAGANA (平仮名 / ひらがな)

 

KATAKANA (片仮名 / カタカナ).

 

 

Latin alfabesi, rōmaji (ローマ字) ise özellikle yabancı insanların Japonca okunuşları daha kolay anlayabilmesi adına  günümüz Japoncasında sık bir şekilde kullanılan “Japonca’nın Latince yazılımı”diyebileceğimiz yazı sistemidir.

 

Gelin şimdi bu karmaşık gözüken fakat aksine mantığını kavradıkça eğlenceli hale gelen temel 3 yazı sistemine bir göz atalım..

 

  

HİRAGANA YAZIM SİSTEMİ

 

  

Hiragana yazım sistemi,tek  heceli harflerden oluşur;yani her heceye denk düşecek şekilde birer tane HiRAGANA HARFi vardır.Örneğin;

         ®          “a”

          ®          “ka”

きょ    ®          “kyo”                   diye okunur.

KATAKANA YAZIM SİSTEMİ

 

 

Katakana yazım sisteminde de ,Hiragana Yazım sisteminde olduğu gibi her heceye denk düşecek şekilde birer tane KATAKANA HARFi vardır.Şekilsel olarak daha sert ve köşeli olup,bu yazı sistemi daha çok,Japonca dışındaki dillerden gelen yabancı kelimeler,özel isimler,vs için kullanılır.Örneğin;

         ®          “a”

          ®          “ka”

キョ    ®          “kyo”                   diye okunur ayrıca

ESRA KOPARAN               ®          ESURA KOPARAN            ®                

                                                                                                                             E   SU  RA    KO  PA  RA   N

şeklinde özel isim okunuşu gerçekleşir .(Esra’nın Esura şeklinde okunması dilbilgisi kurallarına dayanmaktadır)

 

KANJİ YAZIM SİSTEMİ

 

Kanji yazım sisteminin ,Hiragana ve Katakana Yazım sistemine göre bambaşka bir sistemi vardır.Çünkü,her bir kanji bir ses değil,başlı başına bir nesne veya kavramı karşılamaktadır.

Ayrıca rakamsal olarak da en fazla karakteri içeren yazı sistemi budur.İlk bakışta resim yada tablo gibi gözüken bu karakterlerden yaklaşık 5000 adet bulunmaktadır. Bu adedin tamamını yüksek öğrenim görmüş bir Japon bile bilemezken,bir Japon gazetesini yada resmi bir yazıyı okuyabilmek için 4000 civarında karakterin en azından anlamsal olarak bilinmesi gerekmektedir.Diğer yandan hem bir Japon öğrencisinin hem de ileri düzeyde Japonca öğrenmek isteyen yabancıların  1945 adet karakter içeren ve ana kanjiler diye de bilinen  常用漢字”(JOUYOUKANJI)  leri öğrenmesi beklenmektedir.Ancak bu şekilde heceyi yada kelimeyi oluşturan kanjiler kolaylıkla hem anlamsal hem de okunuşsal olarak teker teker analiz edilebilmekte hem de anlamının bilinmediği bir kanji parçasıyla karşılasılsa bile bulmaca mantığı gibi bütün olarak kanjili kavram algılanabilmektedir.

 

Şimdi de bu karışık gibi görünen sistemi sevimli bir örnekle basitleştirip toparlayalım:

“A İ ”  kelimesi (ROMAJİ İLE YAZILIMI) ,

あい                 (HİRAGANA İLE YAZILIMI)

アイ                  (KATAKANA İLE YAZILIMI)

Japonca’da “AŞK”anlamına gelir,diğer yandan “ACI,KEDER”anlamına da gelir.Peki,bu durumda bu”Aİ”sözcüğünün hangi anlamda kullanıldığını nasıl anlayacağız derseniz,işte o noktada imdadınıza KANJİ ! yetişir…Şöyle ki,

Eğer  あい(Aİ)sözcüğünü      “ kanjisi ile yazarsanız(ki bu kanjinin okunuşu あい(Aİ) dır)  AŞK”anlamına gelir ,

Fakat

         あい(Aİ)sözcüğünü      “kanjisi ile yazarsanız(ki bu kanjinin okunuşu  daあい(Aİ) dır) 

ACI,KEDER”anlamına gelir.

O kadar da zor değil,değil mi?...

Burada Japonca okunusları da ekleyelım :

 

1- ich (i)                                                                     川 kava

2- ni                                                                            田 ta

3- san                                                                         山 yama

4- yon / shi                                                                 日 hi / nichi

5- go                                                                           月 getsu / gatsu

6- roku                                                                                       ki

7- nana / shichi                                                               mizu

8- hachi                                                                      鳥 tori

9- kyuu                                                                       魚 sakana

10- juu                                                                        雨 ame

100- hyaku                                                                 米 kome

1000- sen                                                                   土 tsuchi

 

月曜日                        getsuyoubi                              PAZARTESİ

火曜日                       kayoubi                                  SALI

水曜日                       suiyoubi                                  ÇARŞAMBA

木曜日                       mokuyoubi                             PERŞEMBE

金曜日                       kinyoubi                                 CUMA

土曜日                       doyoubi                                  CUMARTESİ

日曜日                       nichiyoubi                              PAZAR

 

黒い                           kuroi                                       SİYAH

白い                           shiroi                                      BEYAZ

赤い                           akai                                         KIRMIZI

                               midori                                     YEŞİL

青い                           aoi                                          MAVİ

入り口                       iriguchi                                   GİRİŞ (YER)

出口                           deguchi                                  ÇIKIŞ (YER)

禁煙                           kinen                                      SİGARA YASAĞI

地下鉄                       chikatetsu                               YER ALTI DEMİR YOLLARI

 

AYRICA ben de ekleyim buldgm guzel bır seyi.. ( GUNLUK JAPONCA IFADELERI olarak)

 

 

Greeting

 

How are you?

Genki?

I'm fine.

Genki.

I'm pretty good.

Totemo genki.

I'm surviving.

Ikiteru yo.

I'm hanging in there.

Nantoka ganbatteru.

you haven't changed a bit.

Chittomo kawatte nai ne.

Neither have you.

Anata mo kawatte nai ne.

I haven't seen him in 2 years.

Ni-nen mo kare ni atte nai.

We haven't heard from him for a while.

Kare kara shibaraku renraku ga nai.

I'll be in touch.

Renraku suru ne.

Do I know you? / Have we met?

Dokoka de ai mashitaka?

I know you from somewhere.

Dokoka de atta ki ga suru.

Say hello to Susan.

Susan ni yoroshiku tsutaete.

Give her a hug from me.

Kanojo ni yoroshiku ne.

How did you get to know each other?

Douiu fuu ni shiriai ni nattano?

We've just met here.

Tamatama koko de attano.

I'm looking forward to seeing him.

Kare ni au noga tanoshimi.

That's something to look forward to.

Sore wa tanoshimi dane.

Let me introduce myself.

Jiko shoukai sasete kudasai.

Nice to meet you.

Yoroshiku

It was nice knowing you.

Shiriaete yokatta.

 

 



See you.

 

See you later.

Ja matane./Mata atodene.

See you next time.

Ja kondo ne./Mata kondone

See you soon.

Mata sonouchine.

I'll be seeing you.

Mata sugu aeru yone.

Take care. Take it easy.

Ja ne.

I've got to go.

Mou ikanakucha.

I'm leaving.

Mou deru.

Talk to you later.

Mata atode hanasou.

 

 



Where are you?

 

Where are you?

Doko ni iruno?

Where have you been?

Doko ni itano?

Is Mark around?

Mark iru?

Have you seen Jack?

Jack mita?

Hey, Are you hiding out?

Nanda koko ni kakurete tano?

 

 



Happy / Glad

 

I'm happy. / I'm glad.

Ureshii.

You look happy.

Ureshi sou ne.

I'm glad you're back.

Modotte kite kurete ureshii.

I couldn't be happier. / I've never been happier.

Kore ijou ureshii koto wa naiyo.

What are you so happy about?

Nande son nani happy nano?

He is a fun guy.

Kare wa tanoshii hito.

 

 



look like / sound like

 

It sounds(looks) good.

Yosasou.

It sounds(looks) interesting.

Omoshirosou.

It sounds(looks) fun.

tanoshisou.

You look good.

Choushi ga yosasou ne.

You look sad.

Kanashisou ne.

You look down.

Ochikonderu mitai ne.

You look(sound) like an idiot.

Baka mitai.

 

 



I like it. / I don't like it.

 

I like it.

Ii ne. / Suki.

I love it.

Daisuki.

I don't like it.

Suki ja nai.

I'm not going to like it.

Sore wa doumo suki ni narenai.

I hate him.

Kare wa kirai.

 

 



Hobby / Taste

 

What do you like to do? / What's your hobby?

Shumi wa nani?

Your tastes are extravagant.

Anata no shumi wa zeitaku.

Your taste sucks.

Anata no shumi wa saitei.

 

 



Day / Year

 

What day is it today?

Kyou wa nan youbi?

What's the date today?

Kyou wa nan nichi?

Do you know what day it was yesterday?

Kinou wa nan no hi dattaka shitteru?

What year is it?

Ima wa nan nen?

 

 



Got it?

 

Got it?

Wakatta?

Yea, I got it.

Un,wakatta.

Did I make myself clear?

Chanto wakatta no?

I see.

Naruhodo. / Wakatta.

I got it.

Wakatta.

I sort of understand.

Nantonaku wakatta.

I think I understand.

Wakatta to omou.

I know.

Shitteru./Wakatteru.

Jast as I thought.

Omotta touri.

See, I was right.

Hora, ittatouri desho.

 

 



Nationality / Language

 

Where are you from?

Doko no shusshin?

What is your nationality?

Kokuseki wa doko?

How do you say "_____"in Japanese?

"_____"wa nihongo de nante iuno ?

What's another way of saying "_____"?

"_____" no betsu no iikata wa?

Is English your mother tongue?

Eigo wa bokokugo?

Do you speak English?

Eigo hanaseru?

What is ISP short for?

ISP wa nan no ryaku?

It's a short of "Internet Service Provider".

"Internet Service Provider" no ryaku dayo.

How do you spell it?

superu wa?

Speak more slowly(, please)?

Yukkuri hanashite (kudasai).

 

 



Thank you.

 

Thank you.

Arigatou.

Thank you very much.

Doumo arigatou gozaimasu.

Thank you for your time.

Jikan o totte moratte sumimasen.

You're welcome.

Dou itashi mashite./

I appreciate.

Kansha shiteimasu.

Thank you for everything (what you've done for me.)

Iroiro arigatou.

 

 



I'm sorry.

 

Sorry about that.

Sonokoto wa gomen nasai.

I'm sorry.

Gomen nasai. / Sumimasen.

Sorry.

Gomen.

Don't be sorry.

Ayamaru koto naiyo.

What a pity.

Kawaisou.

I feel so sorry for you.

Okinodoku ni.

I'm sorry to hear that.

Zannnen dane.

That's too bad.

Sore wa yokunai ne./ Sore wa hidoi ne.

I owe you an apology.

Anata ni ayamara nakucha.

It's my fault.

Watashi no sei.

It's not my fault.

Watashi no sei janai.

It's not anybody's fault.

Dare no sei demo nai.

Do you want me to apologize?

Watashi ni ayamatte morai taino?

I'll never forgive him.

Kare o zettai yurusanai.

I won't tolerate.

Taerare nai.

I had my reasons.

(Sou suru) riyuu ga atta no.

Sorry to interrupt you.

Ojama shite sumimasen.

I don't mean to interrupt.

Jama suru tsumori wa nain dakedo.

Sorry to bother you.

Doumo ojama shimashita.

You'll be sorry.

Koukai suru yo.

Am I disturbing you?

Ojama shitemo ii desuka?

 

 



Think

 

I think...

...to omou.

I bet...

Kitto ...dato omou.

I assumed...

...to tekkiri omoi konde ita.

I wonder...

...kana.

I've been wondering...

Zutto...kana to omotte ta.

I noticed...

...to ki ga tsuiteita.

I realized...

...to yatto wakatta.

I didn't recognize...

...to wakaranakatta.

I know...

...o shitteiru. / ...to wakatteru.

I knew it.

Yappari ne. / Wakatteta.

I doubt that...

...ja nai to omou.

I hope...

...dato iin dakedo.

I figured out that...

...to wakatta yo.

That figures.

Sorede wakatta.

 

 



Difficult / Complicate/ Easy

 

It's very difficult.

Sugoku muzukashii.

It's complicated.

Fukuzatsu.

It's a little bit complicated.

Chotto fukuzatsu.

It's a long story.

Iroiro atte...

A lot's happened so fast since Friday...

Kinyoubi kara iroiro atte...

It's hard to explain...

Stsumei shinikuin dakedo...

I'm confused.

Konran shiteru.

I'm getting confused.

Konran shitekita.

It's easy.

Kantan.

 

 



Better / Best

 

I'll try my best.

Gambari masu.

I'll do my best.

Besuto o tsukusuyo.

That would be better.

Sonohou ga ii yo.

I feel much better.

Kibun ga yoku natta.

You'd better exercise.

Undou shita houga iiyo.

You better get a medical checkup.

Kenkoushindan ni itta houga iiyo.

Give me a better price.

Motto yasuku shite.

You look better in person (than in picture).

Jitsubutu no houga iiyo.

the sooner, the better.

Hayakereba hayaihodo ii.

Better luck next time.

Konotsugi wa ganbatte.

This is way better than you would think.

Omotta yorimo mashi.

This keeps getting better and better.

Dandan omoshiroku natte kita.

Am I getting better?

Umakunatta?

You can do much better.

Motto umaku dekiruyo.

It's much better.

Zutto yokunatta.

Better than ever.

Imamade yoriwa yokunatta.

 

 



That's right!

 

That's right! / Exactly!

Sonotouri!

I agree.

Sansei.

I think so.

Sou omou.

I hope so.

Sou dato iine.

I can't help it.

Shouga naiyo.

That's it! (That's what I was looking for[trying to say])

Sou sore!

Sure. / Of course.

Mochiron.

That's about it.

Sonna kanji.

 

 



Probably / Maybe

 

It might be true.

Soukamone.

Probably

Tabunne.

Maybe.

Moshika shitarane.

Maybe yes, maybe not.

Sou kamo shirenaishi, chigau kamo shirenai.

Half and half. / Fifty-fifty.

Han han dane.

Kind of.

Maane./ Sonna kanji

 

 



That's not right.

 

That's not right. / That's not true.

Chigauyo.

That's out of the question.

Mondai gai dayo.

I can't agree.

Sansei dekinai.

I doubt it. / I don't think so.

Souja naito omou.

I don't think so.

Chigau to omou.

Not exactly. / Not really.

Soudemo nai.

That's impossible.

Muri dayo.

That's absolutely impossible.

Zettai muri dayo.

No way!

Tondemonai!

I can't believe it.

Shinji rarenai.

Terrible! / Awful!

Hidoi! / Saitei!

I won't.

Shinai yo.

I don't want.

Shitaku nai.

 

 



Joke

 

No kidding.

Joudan yameteyo.

You're kidding.

Joudan desho.

Just kidding...

Honno joudan. / Honno jouku.

 

 



Great! / Amazing! /You did it!

 

Great/ Excellent! / Fantastic! / Super! / Wonderful

Sugoine!

Cool. / Awesome.

Kakkoii.

Amazing!

Odoroita!

You did it! / Way to go!

Yattane!

I made it!

Yatta!

 

 



 

 

Lucky

 

Am I lucky!

Nante lucky nandarou!

You're lucky.

Lucky dane.

I envy you.

Urayamashii.

 

 



Me too.

 

Me too. / So am I / Me neither. / Neither do I. etc...

Watashi mo sou.

So is mine

Watashi nomo sou.

So are you.

Anata mo sou.

Not me.

Watashi wa chigau.

 

 



Well / let's see

 

Let's see...

Etto...

Well,

Jaa, / Sate, / Etto...

You know,

ne shitteru, / Anone....

I hate to tell you this....

Iinikuin dakedo.....

Between you and me...

Kokodake no Hanashi dakedo...

For example... / For instance... / Say from...

Tatoeba...

Anyway,

Tonikaku,

By the way,

Tokorode,

Actually,

Jitsuwa,

 

 



Short expressions

 

It's risky.

Yabai.

Calm down.

Ochitsuite.

Never mind.

Kinishinaide.

Forget it.

Nandemonai. / Wasurete.

She is down.

Kanojo ochikonderu.

Cheer up.

Genki dashite

Cheer him up.

Kare o genki zukete.

It depends.

Baai ni yoru.

I'm in trouble.

Komatteru.

I blew it.

Shippaishita.

I made a mistake.

Machigaeta.

Stay loose!

Sou okoranaide.

It's up to you.

Makaseruyo.

Whtch out! / Look out!

Abunai!

Go for it!

Ganbare!

Do your best! / Good luck!

Ganbatte!

Everything is under control.

Zenbu umaku itteiru.

I'm on top of it.

Zenbu watashi ga kontororu shiteiru.

So far, so good.

Imano tokoro umaku itteru.

 

 



Present

 

I got something a present for you

Purezento ga arunda.

This is a little something for you.

Hon no kimochi dakedo.

This is for her.

Kore kanojo ni.

Hope you like it.

Kini itte kureruto iin dakedo.

How do you like my present?

Purezento kini itta?

It's just what I wanted.

Choudo hoshikattanda.

It suits you.

Niaune.

 

 



Look

 

Look!

Mite!

Don't look!

Minaide!

Look at that!

Are mite!

Take a look.

Chotto mite.

Did you see it?

Mita?

I saw it.

Mitayo.

I wanted to see it.

Mitakatta.

I don't want to see it.

Mitakunakatta.

I didn't see it.

Minakatta.

I couldn't see it.

Mienakatta.

What are you looking at?

Nani miteruno?

What are you looking for?

Nani sagashiteruno?

 

 



Hear / Listen

 

Listen to me.

Kiite.

Don't listen. / Don't ask me.

Kikanaide.

Can you hear me?

Kikoeru?

Are you listening to me?

Kiiteruno?

You're not listening to me !

Kiitenai janai !

Did you hear me?

Kikoeta?

I couldn't hear.

Kikoenakatta.

I didn't hear.

Kikanakatta.

I don't want to hear.

Kikitakunai.

 

 



Say / Talk

 

I can't say for sure.

Nantomo ienai.

Say something.

Nanka itte.

You said that, didn't you?

sou ittadesho?

What are you talking about?

Nani itteruno? / Nani hanashiteruno?

You shouldn't say things like that.

Sonna koto iwanai houga ii.

What did you say?

Nante ittano?

I didn't say anything.

Nanimo ittenai.

Say it again.

Mou ikkai itte.

What's the point?

Naniga iitaino?

I don't know what to say.

Nante itteiika wakaranai.

You took the words out of my mouse.

Saki ni iwarechatta.

Don't make excuses!

Iiwake shinaide!

 

 



Come / Go

 

Come here.

Koko ni kite.

I'm comming.

Ima iku.

Can you come?

Koreru?

He's coming here.

Kare kokoni kuruyo.

I think I can go.

Ikeru to omou.

You went, didn't you.

Ittadesho?

I have to go now.

Mou ikanakucha.

Don't go yet.

Mada ikanaide.

What time can I come over?

Nanji ni kureba ii? / Nanji ni ikeba ii?

What time do we leave?

Nanji ni deru?

Let's leave here!

Sa ikou.

 

 



Eat

 

Did you eat?

Gohan tabeta?

I haven't eaten yet.

Mada tabetenai.

I don't want to eat.

Tabetakunai

I won't eat.

Tabenai.

I missed lunch.

Hirugohan taberare nakatta.

I skipped lunch.

Hirugohan nukashita.

Do you want to eat some more?

Motto taberu?

I'm really full.

honto ni onaka ippai.

I still have some.

Mada arukara.

I can't eat that.

Sore taberarenai.

I'm hungry.

Onaka suita.

I'm thirsty.

Nodoga kawaita.

Try it!

Tabetemite.

I like everything.

Suki-kirai wa naiyo.

 

 



Telephone

 

Hello? Is this Mrs. Kato?

Moshi moshi? Kato san desuka?

Is this 9876-5432?

9876-5432 ban desuka?

This is Sato of XYZ.

XYZ no Sato desu.

Is Mrs. Kato in?

Kato san imasuka?

May I speak to Susan?

Susan wo onegai shimasu.

Is Tomoko there?

Tomoko iru?

Who's calling, please?

Dochira sama desuka?

I'll get her.

Kanojo o yonde kimasu.

Hold on please.

Shoushou omachi kudasai.

Sorry to keep you waiting.

Omatase shite sumimasen.

He's not in right now.

Tadaima dekaketeimasu.

When will she return?

Itsu modori masuka?

Please tell him I called.

Denwa ga atta to tsutaete kudasai.

May I leave a message for him.

Message o tsutaete morae masuka?

May I take a message for her?

Message o tsutaemashouka?

No, it's OK.

Iie daijobu desu.

You must have the wrong number.

Bangou ga machigatte masu.

What number are you calling?

Nanban ni okake desuka?

I'll call you back.

Kakenaoshi masu

I'll call you on monday.

Getsuyoubi ni denwa shimasu.

Where can I reach you during the day time?

Hiruma wa doko ni renraku sureba iidesuka?

May I use the phone?

Denwa o karitemo iidesuka?

May I have your name(number, address)?

Namae (denwa-bangou,jusho) o oshiete itadake masuka?